The New York Times, January 5, 2021

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Researchers are testing 64 coronavirus vaccines in clinical trials on humans. Here are explanations about how nine of the leading vaccines work.

Messenger RNA Vaccines

How the Pfizer-BioNTech Vaccine Works

The vaccine, known as Comirnaty, has been approved or authorized for emergency use in many countries, including the United States. Clinical trials showed the vaccine has an efficacy of 95 percent.

How Moderna’s Vaccine Works

The vaccine, known as mRNA-1273, has been approved in Canada and authorized for emergency use in the United States, Israel and the European Union. Clinical trials showed the vaccine has an efficacy of 94.5 percent.

Adenovirus-Based Vaccines

How the Oxford-AstraZeneca Vaccine Works

The vaccine, known as AZD1222 or Covishield, is authorized for emergency use in Britain, India, Mexico and other countries. Clinical trials showed the vaccine has an efficacy of approximately 70 percent, depending on dosage.

How the Johnson & Johnson Vaccine Works

The vaccine, called Ad26.COV2.S, is in Phase 3 trials and has not been authorized by any country. Trial results are expected in January.

New · How the Gamaleya Vaccine Works

The vaccine, known as Sputnik V or Gam-Covid-Vac, is a combination of two different Adenoviruses, Ad26 and Ad5. The vaccine is in use in Russia, Belarus and several other countries. A Phase 3 trial showed an efficacy of 91 percent.

Protein-Based Vaccines

How the Novavax Vaccine Works

The vaccine, known as NVX-CoV2373, is in Phase 3 trials. The vaccine has not been authorized by any country.

Inactivated Coronavirus Vaccines

How the Sinopharm Vaccine Works

The vaccine, known as BBIBP-CorV, is approved in China, Bahrain and the United Arab Emirates. Sinopharm says the vaccine has an efficacy rate of 79.34 percent.

How the Sinovac Vaccine Works

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The vaccine, known as CoronaVac, is authorized for limited use in China. Turkey announced the vaccine has an efficacy of 91.25 percent, and full results from Phase 3 trials are expected in January.

New · How Bharat Biotech’s Vaccine Works

The vaccine, known as Covaxin, is authorized for emergency use in India, despite a lack of published Phase 3 trial results. The vaccine’s efficacy is not yet known.

See the Coronavirus Vaccine Tracker for the status of other vaccines in development.

Copyright 2021 The New York Times Company. Reprinted with permission.